2019-03-02 13:39  阅读(2391)
文章分类:Hadoop 学习之旅 文章标签:大数据HadoopHadoop 学习
©  原文作者:扎心了,老铁 原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/qingyunzong/category/1169344.html

作者:扎心了,老铁

出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/qingyunzong/category/1169344.html


Hadoop常用命令

启动HDFS集群

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ start-****dfs.sh**
Starting namenodes on [hadoop1]
hadoop1: starting namenode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-namenode-hadoop1.out
hadoop2: starting datanode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-datanode-hadoop2.out
hadoop3: starting datanode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-datanode-hadoop3.out
hadoop4: starting datanode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-datanode-hadoop4.out
hadoop1: starting datanode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-datanode-hadoop1.out
Starting secondary namenodes [hadoop3]
hadoop3: starting secondarynamenode, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/hadoop-hadoop-secondarynamenode-hadoop3.out
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

启动YARN集群

[hadoop@hadoop4 ~]$ start-****yarn.sh**
starting yarn daemons
starting resourcemanager, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/yarn-hadoop-resourcemanager-hadoop4.out
hadoop2: starting nodemanager, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/yarn-hadoop-nodemanager-hadoop2.out
hadoop3: starting nodemanager, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/yarn-hadoop-nodemanager-hadoop3.out
hadoop4: starting nodemanager, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/yarn-hadoop-nodemanager-hadoop4.out
hadoop1: starting nodemanager, logging to /home/hadoop/apps/hadoop-2.7.5/logs/yarn-hadoop-nodemanager-hadoop1.out
[hadoop@hadoop4 ~]$

查看HDFS系统根目录

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /**
Found 2 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2018-03-03 11:42 /test
drwx------   - hadoop supergroup          0 2018-03-03 11:42 /tmp
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

创建文件夹

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -mkdir /****a**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 3 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2018-03-08 11:09 /a
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2018-03-03 11:42 /test
drwx------   - hadoop supergroup          0 2018-03-03 11:42 /tmp
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

级联创建文件夹

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -mkdir -p /aa/bb/****cc**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

查看hsdf系统根目录下的所有文件包括子文件夹里面的文件

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /aa**
drwxr-xr-x - hadoop supergroup 0 2018-03-08 11:12 /aa/bb
drwxr-xr-x - hadoop supergroup 0 2018-03-08 11:12 /aa/bb/cc
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

上传文件

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ls
apps data words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -put words.txt /aa**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -copyFromLocal words.txt /aa/bb**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

下载文件

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -get /aa/words.txt ~/****newwords.txt**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ls
apps  data  newwords.txt  words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1** **~]$ hadoop fs -copyToLocal /aa/words.txt ~/****newwords1.txt**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ls
apps  data  newwords1.txt  newwords.txt  words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

合并下载

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -getmerge /aa/words.txt /aa/bb/words.txt ~/****2words.txt**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ll
总用量 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 hadoop hadoop   **78** 3月   8 12:42 **2words.txt**
drwxrwxr-x. 3 hadoop hadoop 4096 3月   3 10:30 apps
drwxrwxr-x. 3 hadoop hadoop 4096 3月   3 11:40 data
-rw-r--r--. 1 hadoop hadoop   39 3月   8 11:49 newwords1.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 hadoop hadoop   39 3月   8 11:48 newwords.txt
-rw-rw-r--. 1 hadoop hadoop   **39** 3月   3 11:31 **words.txt**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

复制

从HDFS一个路径拷贝到HDFS另一个路径

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /a
[hadoop@hadoop1** **~]$ hadoop fs -cp /aa/words.txt /****a**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /a
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   2 hadoop supergroup         39 2018-03-08 12:46 /a/words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

移动

在HDFS目录中移动文件

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /aa/bb/cc
[hadoop@hadoop1** **~]$ hadoop fs -mv /a/words.txt /aa/bb/****cc**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /aa/bb/cc
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   2 hadoop supergroup         39 2018-03-08 12:46 /aa/bb/cc/words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

删除

删除文件或文件夹

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -rm /aa/bb/cc/words.txt** 18/03/08 12:49:08 INFO fs.TrashPolicyDefault: Namenode trash configuration: Deletion interval = 0 minutes, Emptier interval = 0 minutes.
Deleted /aa/bb/cc/words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /aa/bb/cc
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

删除空目录

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -rmdir /aa/bb/cc/**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /aa/bb/
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   2 hadoop supergroup         39 2018-03-08 11:43 /aa/bb/words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

强制删除

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -rm /aa/bb/
rm: `/aa/bb': Is a directory
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -rm -r /aa/bb/**
18/03/08 12:51:31 INFO fs.TrashPolicyDefault: Namenode trash configuration: Deletion interval = 0 minutes, Emptier interval = 0 minutes.
Deleted /aa/bb
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -ls /aa
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   2 hadoop supergroup         39 2018-03-08 11:41 /aa/words.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

从本地剪切文件到HDFS上

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ls
apps  data  hello.txt
[hadoop@hadoop1** **~]$ hadoop fs -moveFromLocal ~/hello.txt /****aa**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ ls
apps  data
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

追加文件

追加之前hello.txt到words.txt之前

1228818-20180308125830426-570415929.png

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -appendToFile ~/hello.txt /aa/****words.txt**
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

追加之前hello.txt到words.txt之后

1228818-20180308130118866-1783962726.png

查看文件内容

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hadoop fs -cat /aa/****hello.txt**
hello
hello
hello
[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$

chgrp

使用方法:hadoop fs -chgrp [-R] GROUP URI [URI …] Change group association of files. With -R, make the change recursively through the directory structure. The user must be the owner of files, or else a super-user. Additional information is in the Permissions User Guide. -->

改变文件所属的组。使用-R将使改变在目录结构下递归进行。命令的使用者必须是文件的所有者或者超级用户。更多的信息请参见HDFS权限用户指南

chmod

使用方法:hadoop fs -chmod [-R] <MODE[,MODE]... | OCTALMODE> URI [URI …]

改变文件的权限。使用-R将使改变在目录结构下递归进行。命令的使用者必须是文件的所有者或者超级用户。更多的信息请参见HDFS权限用户指南

chown

使用方法:hadoop fs -chown [-R] [OWNER][:[GROUP]] URI [URI ]

改变文件的拥有者。使用-R将使改变在目录结构下递归进行。命令的使用者必须是超级用户。更多的信息请参见HDFS权限用户指南

du

使用方法:hadoop fs -du URI [URI …]

显示目录中所有文件的大小,或者当只指定一个文件时,显示此文件的大小。

示例:

hadoop fs -du /user/hadoop/dir1 /user/hadoop/file1 hdfs://host:port/user/hadoop/dir1 

返回值:

成功返回0,失败返回-1。 

dus

使用方法:hadoop fs -dus

显示文件的大小。

expunge

使用方法:hadoop fs -expunge

清空回收站。请参考HDFS设计文档以获取更多关于回收站特性的信息。

setrep

使用方法:hadoop fs -setrep [-R]

改变一个文件的副本系数。-R选项用于递归改变目录下所有文件的副本系数。

示例:

  • hadoop fs -setrep -w 3 -R /user/hadoop/dir1

返回值:

成功返回0,失败返回-1。

tail

使用方法:hadoop fs -tail [-f] URI

将文件尾部1K字节的内容输出到stdout。支持-f选项,行为和Unix中一致。

示例:

  • hadoop fs -tail pathname

返回值:

成功返回0,失败返回-1。

test

使用方法:hadoop fs -test -[ezd] URI

选项:

  • -e 检查文件是否存在。如果存在则返回0。
  • -z 检查文件是否是0字节。如果是则返回0。 
  • -d 如果路径是个目录,则返回1,否则返回0。

示例:

hadoop fs -test -e filename

 查看集群的工作状态

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$ hdfs dfsadmin -****report**
Configured Capacity: 73741402112 (68.68 GB)
Present Capacity: 52781039616 (49.16 GB)
DFS Remaining: 52780457984 (49.16 GB)
DFS Used: 581632 (568 KB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
Under replicated blocks: 0
Blocks with corrupt replicas: 0
Missing blocks: 0
Missing blocks (with replication factor 1): 0

-------------------------------------------------
Live datanodes (4):

Name: 192.168.123.102:50010 (hadoop1)
Hostname: hadoop1
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 18435350528 (17.17 GB)
DFS Used: 114688 (112 KB)
Non DFS Used: 4298661888 (4.00 GB)
DFS Remaining: 13193277440 (12.29 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 71.57%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Thu Mar 08 13:05:11 CST 2018

Name: 192.168.123.105:50010 (hadoop4)
Hostname: hadoop4
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 18435350528 (17.17 GB)
DFS Used: 49152 (48 KB)
Non DFS Used: 4295872512 (4.00 GB)
DFS Remaining: 13196132352 (12.29 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 71.58%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Thu Mar 08 13:05:13 CST 2018

Name: 192.168.123.103:50010 (hadoop2)
Hostname: hadoop2
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 18435350528 (17.17 GB)
DFS Used: 233472 (228 KB)
Non DFS Used: 4295700480 (4.00 GB)
DFS Remaining: 13196120064 (12.29 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 71.58%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Thu Mar 08 13:05:11 CST 2018

Name: 192.168.123.104:50010 (hadoop3)
Hostname: hadoop3
Decommission Status : Normal
Configured Capacity: 18435350528 (17.17 GB)
DFS Used: 184320 (180 KB)
Non DFS Used: 4296941568 (4.00 GB)
DFS Remaining: 13194928128 (12.29 GB)
DFS Used%: 0.00%
DFS Remaining%: 71.57%
Configured Cache Capacity: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used: 0 (0 B)
Cache Remaining: 0 (0 B)
Cache Used%: 100.00%
Cache Remaining%: 0.00%
Xceivers: 1
Last contact: Thu Mar 08 13:05:10 CST 2018

[hadoop@hadoop1 ~]$
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